Harvard Referencing Guide

General information

  • All sources (directly quoted or paraphrased) must include an in-text citation and be listed in the Bibliography.
  • All references in the text and notes must be specified by the authors’ last names and date of publication together with page numbers if given.
  • Do not use ibid., op. cit., infra., supra. Instead, show the subsequent citation of the same source in the same way as the first.
  • Initials should be used without spaces or full points.
  • Up to three authors may be listed. If more are provided, then list the first three authors and represent the rest by et al. 
  • Where et al. is used in textual citations, this should always be upright, not italic.

In Text Citations (written sources)

Submissions should use the following author-date formats for in text citations of written sources:

1. If the author’s name is in the text, follow with year in parentheses:

... Author Last Name (year) has argued ...

2. If the author’s name is not in the text, insert last name, comma and year:

... several works (Author Last Name, year) have described ...

3. Where appropriate, the page number follows the year, separated by a colon:

... it has been noted (Author Last Name, year: page nos) that ...

4. Where there are two authors, give both names, joined by ‘and’; if three or more authors, use et al.:

... it has been stated (Author Last Name and Author Last Name, year) ...
... some investigators (Author Last Name et al., year) ...

5. If there is more than one reference to the same author and year, insert a, b, etc. in both the text and the list:

... it was described (Author Last Name, yeara, yearb) ...

6. If referencing more than one source, enclose within a single pair of parentheses and list in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons:

... and it has been noted (Author Last Name and Author Last Name, year; Author Last Name and Author Last Name, year; Author Last Name, year) …

7. If two or more references by the same author are cited together, list chronologically and separate the dates with a comma:

... the author has stated this in several studies (Author Last Name, year, year, year, year) ...

8. Enclose within the parentheses any brief phrase associated with the reference:

... several investigators have claimed this (but see Author Last Name, year: page nos–page nos)

9. For an institutional authorship, supply the minimum citation from the beginning of the complete reference:

.. a recent statement (Name of Institution, year: page nos) ...
... occupational data (Name of Bureau or Institution, year: page nos) reveal ...

10. For authorless articles or studies, use the name of the magazine, journal, newspaper or sponsoring organization, and not the title of the article:

... it was stated (Name of Journal, year) that ...

11. Citations from personal communications that are not included in the reference list: 

... has been hypothesized (Name of Person Cited, year, personal communication).

12. Online written sources should list ‘online’ instead of page numbers

... it has been argued (Author, date: online)...

In Text Citations (audio-visual, live sources)

All titles of audio-visual sources should be italicised and cited using the following format the first time they are mentioned:

1. Films should include director, country and year of release in parentheses

... The Princess Bride (dir. Rob Reiner, 1987)...

2. For full television series, include original broadcaster/streaming service and run dates in parentheses:

... Doctor Who (BBC One, 1963-)...
... Orange is the New Black (Netflix, 2013-2019)...

3. For individual television episodes, include episode number and title (if available), transmission date (if no number/title is available) and original broadcaster/streaming service in parentheses. Title is not necessary if included in main body of article:

... Shrinking (1.04 ‘Potatoes’, Apple TV+)...
... EastEnders (tx 19/05/2023, BBC One)...

4.. For videogames, include the developer/publisher and release date in parentheses

... The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom (Nintendo, 2023)...

5. For online videos (e.g. YouTube), include the uploader, release platform and release date in parentheses

... ‘Honest Trailers: Jurassic Park’ (Screen Junkies, YouTube, 2013)...

6. Content with non-English language titles must have their original title given first with any English language name by which they are familiarly known following in square brackets. Where two different English-language titles exist, use the version most appropriate to the article’s context:

... 37°2 le matin ([Betty Blue], dir Jean-Jacques Beineix, 1986)...
... y gwyll ([Hinterland], BBC Wales, 2013-2016)...

7. When referring to plays as texts, include the playwright and date in parentheses

... Dancing at Lughnasa (Brian Friel, 1990.)...

8. For specific theatrical performances, include the director, theatre and date in parentheses:

... Dancing at Lughnasa (dir. Josie Rourke, National Theatre, 2023)...

9. For artworks include artist and date in parentheses:

... My Body is not an Island (Eva Koťátková, 2022)...

Reference List

All submissions must include a reference list of all cited and paraphrased sources. Audio-visual content should be listed separately from written sources. All reference lists should use the following guidelines:

  • List sources in alphabetical order by author name for written sources (treat Mc as Mac) and by title for audio-visual content.
  • Names should be in upper and lower case.
  • Where several references have the same author(s), do not use ditto marks or em dashes; the name must be repeated each time.
  • Last Names containing de, van, von, De, Van, Von, de la, etc. should be listed under D and V respectively. List them as: De Roux DP and not Roux DP, de. When cited in the main text without the first name, use capitals for De, Van, Von, De la, etc. (Van Dijk, year) 
  • Names containing Jr or II should be listed as follows:
    • Author Last Name Initial Jr (year)
    • Author Last Name Initial II (year)
  • References where the first-named author is the same should be listed as follows:
    • Single-author references in date order;
    • Two-author references in alphabetical order according to the second author’s name;
    • Et al. references in alphabetical order; in the event of more than one entry having the same date, they should be placed in alphabetical order of second (or third) author, and a, b, etc. must be inserted.
Brown J (2003)
Brown TR and Yates P (2003)
Brown W (2002)
Brown W (2003a)
Brown W (2003b)
Brown W and Jones M (2003)
Brown W and Peters P (2003)
Brown W, Hughes J and Kent T (2003a) Brown W, Kent T and Lewis S (2003b)

Sources should be listed according to the following formats:

1. Books should include year, publishing location and publisher.

Surname, Initial (date), Title, publication location: publisher.

2. Book chapters should include all relevant information for the source book and the chapter page numbers

Surname, Initial (date), in Editor surname, Editor initial (eds) Book Title, publication location: publisher pp. page numbers.

2. Journal articles should include journal title, volume and issue number and page numbers.

Surname, Initial (date), ‘Title’ in Journal Title, volume number: issue number: pp.page numbers.

3. Online written sources should include publication title, indicate that it is an online source, provide a URL and access date

Surname, Initial (date), ‘Title’ in Website, [online] available: URL date [accessed: access date].

4. Films should be listed by title, director, country of production and date.

Title, dir. Forename Surname, Country, Date

5. Television series should be listed with original broadcaster or streaming service and dates

Title, broadcaster/service, Date

6. Videogames should be listed with developer, country of production and date

Title, Publisher, Country, Date

7. Theatrical Performances should be listed with director and date

Title of performance (Year performed) by playwright. Directed by Forename Surname [Venue, City of performance. Date of performance.]

8. Art works should be listed with artist and year

Surname, Initial (year) Title.