Table of Authorities
American Amusement Machine Ass'n v. Kendrick,
244 F.3d 572 (7th Cir. 2001)
Eclipse Enterprises v. Gulotta,
134 F.3d 63 (2nd Cir. 1997)
Anderson, Craig & Brad Bushman, "Effects of Violent Video Games on
Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological
Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific
12 Psych. Science 353 (Sept. 2001)
Craig, & Karen Dill, "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings,
and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life," 78(4) J. Pers. &
Soc. Psych. 772 (2000)
Jeffrey, "The Soundtrack of Restlessness - Musical Preferences and
Reckless Behavior Among Adolescents," 7 J. Adol. Rsrch 313
Jeffrey, "Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths
of Metalheads," 23 Youth & Society 76 (1991)
Albert, et al., "Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models,"
66 J. Abnormal & Soc. Psych. 3 (1963)
Albert, "What TV Violence Can Do to Your Child," Look, Oct.
Leonard, et al., "Film Violence and Subsequent Aggressive
27 Public Opin. Q. 217 (1973)
Lillian & Juliet Van Eenwyk, "Video Games and Real-Life Aggression:
Review of the Literature," 29 J. Adolescent Health 244 (2001)
Bruno, The Uses of Enchantment (1975)
Margaret, "The American Urge to Censor," 22 Wm. & Mary L.Rev.
Richard, "On Media Violence: Whose Facts? Whose Misinformation?"
57(6-7) Amer. Psychologist 447 (2002)
David, "Embracing Fear as Fun To Practice for Reality: Why People
Terrify Themselves," New York Times, Oct. 30, 1999
David, "Electronic Child Abuse? Rethinking the Media's Effects on
Children," in Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate (M.
Barker & J. Petley, eds.) (1997)
Joanne, "Children's Attraction to Violent Television Programming,"
Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment (J.
Goldstein, ed.) (1998)
Brandon, "Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and
to Go From Here," 267(22) J.A.M.A. 3059 (1992)
Thomas, et al., "The Implicit Assumptions of Television Research: An
Analysis of the 1982 NIMH Report on Television and Behavior,"
47 Pub. Opin. Q. 161 (1983)
Guy, "Video Violence: Villain or Victim?" (Video Standards Council,
UK, 2001), www.videostandards.org.uk/video_violence.htm (accessed
John, & Mark Olshaker, The Anatomy of Motive (1999)
Kevin, Computer Games - Their Effects on Young People
Office of Film & Literature Classification, 1995)
Kevin, Computer Games and Australians Today (Australia Office
of Film & Literature Classification, 1999)
Norbert, & Eric Dunning, Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure
the Civilizing Process (1986)
Craig, "Is Mr. Pac Man Eating Our Children? A Review of the Effect
Video Games on Children," 42
Can. J. Psychiatry
Leonard, et al., "Does Television Violence Cause Aggression?"
27 Amer. Psychologist 253 (1972)
Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Report (2000)
Trade Commission, Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children,
Appendix A, "A Review of Research on the Impact of Violence in
Christopher J., "Media Violence, Media Causality,"
57(6-7) Amer. Psychologist 446 (2002)
Stuart, "Psychology's Quixotic Quest for the Media-Violence
4(4) J. Media Psychology (1999), http://www.calstatela.edu/faculty/sfischo/violence.html
Jib, The Case for Television Violence (1999)
Jonathan, Media Violence and Its Effect on Aggression: Assessing
Scientific Evidence (2002)
Jonathan, "Effect of Television Violence on Aggression,"
96(2) Psych. Bull. 227 (1984)
Jonathan, "Viewing Television Violence Does Not Make People
More Aggressive," 22 Hofstra L. Rev. 833 (1994)
Lynette, & Aletha Stein, "Aggressive and Prosocial Television
the Natural Behavior of Preschool Children," 38(4) Monographs of
the Society for
Research in Child Development (1973)
Erich, The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973)
Kenneth, & Joyce Sprafkin, "Field Experiments of Television Violence
with Children: Evidence for an Environmental Hazard?" 83
Pediatrics 399 (1989)
Vicki, "Death Takes a Holiday, Sort Of," in Why We Watch:
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment (J. Goldstein, ed.)
Jeffrey, "Why We Watch," in Why We Watch: The Attractions of
Violent Entertainment (J. Goldstein, ed.) (1998)
Jeffrey, "Does Playing Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior?"
Paper presented at University of Chicago "Playing By the Rules"
Oct. 27, 2001 (to be published as "Violence and Video Games," in the
of Computer Game Studies (J. Raessens & J. Goldstein, eds.)
Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man (1981)
Lies, and Videotape," 354(9178) The Lancet 525 (1999)
Mark, "Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the
4 Aggression & Violent Behav. 203 (1999)
Barrie, The Effects of Video Games on Children: The Myth Unmasked
Joystick Nation (1997)
L. Rowell, et al., "The Stability of Aggression Over Time and
20 Devel. Psych. 1120 (1984)
Henry, "Professor Jenkins Goes to Washington," Harper's, July
Jenkins, Henry , "Lessons From Littleton: What Congress Doesn't Want
About Youth and Media,"
Winter 2000, http://www.nais.org/pubs/ismag.cfm?file_id=537&ismag_id=14
Gerard, Killing Monsters: Why Children Need Fantasy, Super
Make-Believe Violence (2002)
Jonathan, Savage Spawn - Reflections on Violent Children
Lawrence, "Gender Differences in the Psychological Symptomatology
Coping Strategies of Young Adolescents," 7 J. Early Adol. 395
Konrad, On Aggression (1963)
A., Framing Youth: Ten Myths About the Next Generation (1999)
Power and Innocence - A Search for the Sources of Violence
Clark, "When Screen Violence is Not Attractive," in Why We Watch:
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment (J. Goldstein, ed.)
William, "The Myth of Massive Media Impact: Savagings and Salvagings,"
Public Communication and Behavior (G. Comstock, ed.) (1986)
Steven, "Television Violence and Violent Crime: An Aggregate
33(3) Social Problems 218 (1986)
David, Statistics - Concepts and Controversies (4th ed.)
Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Understanding and
Preventing Violence (A. Reiss, Jr. & J. Roth, eds.) (1993)
Institute of Mental Health, Television and Behavior - Ten Years
Progress and Implications for the Eighties (1982)
Debra, The Biology of Violence (1999)
Celia, "Beyond Shoot Your Friends: A Call to Arms in the Battle
Violence," in Digital Illusion: Entertaining the Future With High
(C. Dodsworth, Jr., ed.) (1998)
Alissa , "Child's Play," Lingua Franca, Oct. 2001
Richard, "The Media- Violence Myth," Rolling Stone, Nov. 23,
Willard, Jr., The Politics of TV Violence (1983)
Willard, Jr., "Television Violence Redux: The Continuing Mythology
in Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate (M. Baker & J.
Petley, eds.) (1997)
Joanne, "The Criminologist's Perspective," in Violence and the
(Freedom Forum, 2001)
"Violence in Videogames: What are the Pleasures?" Paper presented
at the International Conference on Violence in the Media, St. John's
New York, Oct. 1994 (reprinted in 2(1) CommOddities - A Journal
and Culture, July 1995)
Schauer, Frederick, "Causation Theory and the Causes of Sexual
Bar Fdtn Rsrch J.
Birgitte Holm & Carsten Jessen, "It Isn't Real: Children, Computer
Games, Violence and Reality," in Children in the New Media
(C. Von Feilitzen & U. Carlsson, eds.) (2000)
Joyce, et al., "Effects of Viewing Aggressive Cartoons on the
of Learning Disabled Children," 28 J. Child Psych. & Psychiatry
Joyce, Testimony in Eclipse Enterprises v. Gulotta
(E.D.N.Y., Mar. 28, 1994)
General's Advisory Comm. on Television & Social Behavior,
Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Televised Violence
Frederic, "The Comics and Delinquency: Cause or Scapegoat,"
23 J. Educ. Sociology 195 (1949)
John, "Here Come the Alpha Pups," New York Times Magazine,
Aug. 5, 2001
John, "The Citizens' Committee and Comic Book Control," 20 Law &
Contemp. Probs. 621 (1955)
Crime Fell 9% in '01, Victim Survey Shows," New York Times,
Sept. 9, 2002
Oene, et al., Television Viewing Related to Aggressive and
Prosocial Behavior (1986)
Oene, et al., "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Television
on Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors," 31 Brit. J. Social Psych.
Wolock, "Is There a Reasonable Approach to Handling Violence in
Video Games?" Children's Software Revue, July/Aug. 2002
Franklin, & Gordon Hawkins, Crime is Not the Problem - Lethal
in America (1997)