Current Contents

Past Issues



The St Louis Court Brief: Debating audience 'effects' in public

Particip@tions Volume 1, Issue 1 (November 2003)


Table of Authorities


American Amusement Machine Ass'n v. Kendrick, 244 F.3d 572 (7th Cir. 2001)

Eclipse Enterprises v. Gulotta, 134 F.3d 63 (2nd Cir. 1997)


Other Authorities

Anderson, Craig & Brad Bushman, "Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive
Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and
Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature,"
12 Psych. Science 353 (Sept. 2001)

Anderson, Craig, & Karen Dill, "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings,
and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life," 78(4) J. Pers. & Soc. Psych. 772 (2000)

Arnett, Jeffrey, "The Soundtrack of Restlessness - Musical Preferences and
Reckless Behavior Among Adolescents," 7 J. Adol. Rsrch 313 (1992)

Arnett, Jeffrey, "Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths
of Metalheads," 23 Youth & Society 76 (1991)

Bandura, Albert, et al., "Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models,"
66 J. Abnormal & Soc. Psych. 3 (1963)

Bandura, Albert, "What TV Violence Can Do to Your Child," Look, Oct. 22, 1963

Berkowitz, Leonard, et al., "Film Violence and Subsequent Aggressive Tendencies,"
27 Public Opin. Q. 217 (1973)

Bensley, Lillian & Juliet Van Eenwyk, "Video Games and Real-Life Aggression:
Review of the Literature," 29 J. Adolescent Health 244 (2001)

Bettelheim, Bruno, The Uses of Enchantment (1975)

Black, Gregory, Hollywood Censored (1994)

Blanchard, Margaret, "The American Urge to Censor," 22 Wm. & Mary L.Rev. 741 (1992)

Bloom, Richard, "On Media Violence: Whose Facts? Whose Misinformation?"
57(6-7) Amer. Psychologist 447 (2002)

Blum, David, "Embracing Fear as Fun To Practice for Reality: Why People Like to
Terrify Themselves," New York Times, Oct. 30, 1999

Buckingham, David, "Electronic Child Abuse? Rethinking the Media's Effects on
Children," in Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate (M. Barker & J. Petley, eds.) (1997)

Cantor, Joanne, "Children's Attraction to Violent Television Programming," in
Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment (J. Goldstein, ed.) (1998)

Centerwall, Brandon, "Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and Where
to Go From Here," 267(22) J.A.M.A. 3059 (1992)

Cook, Thomas, et al., "The Implicit Assumptions of Television Research: An
Analysis of the 1982 NIMH Report on Television and Behavior,"
47 Pub. Opin. Q. 161 (1983)

Cumberbatch, Guy, "Video Violence: Villain or Victim?" (Video Standards Council,
UK, 2001), (accessed 9/13/02)

Douglas, John, & Mark Olshaker, The Anatomy of Motive (1999)

Durkin, Kevin, Computer Games - Their Effects on Young People (Australia
Office of Film & Literature Classification, 1995)

Durkin, Kevin, Computer Games and Australians Today (Australia Office
of Film & Literature Classification, 1999)

Elias, Norbert, & Eric Dunning, Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in
the Civilizing Process

Emes, Craig, "Is Mr. Pac Man Eating Our Children? A Review of the Effect of
Video Games on Children," 42
Can. J. Psychiatry 409 (1997)

Eron, Leonard, et al., "Does Television Violence Cause Aggression?"
27 Amer. Psychologist 253 (1972)

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Report (2000)

Federal Trade Commission, Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children,
Appendix A, "A Review of Research on the Impact of Violence in Entertainment
Media" (2000)

Ferguson, Christopher J., "Media Violence, Media Causality,"
57(6-7) Amer. Psychologist 446 (2002)

Fischoff, Stuart, "Psychology's Quixotic Quest for the Media-Violence Connection,"
4(4) J. Media Psychology (1999),
(accessed 9/20/02)

Fowles, Jib, The Case for Television Violence (1999)

Freedman, Jonathan, Media Violence and Its Effect on Aggression: Assessing the
Scientific Evidence

Freedman, Jonathan, "Effect of Television Violence on Aggression,"
96(2) Psych. Bull. 227 (1984)

Freedman, Jonathan, "Viewing Television Violence Does Not Make People
More Aggressive," 22 Hofstra L. Rev. 833 (1994)

Friedrich, Lynette, & Aletha Stein, "Aggressive and Prosocial Television Programs and
the Natural Behavior of Preschool Children," 38(4) Monographs of the Society for
Research in Child Development

Fromm, Erich, The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973)

Gadow, Kenneth, & Joyce Sprafkin, "Field Experiments of Television Violence
with Children: Evidence for an Environmental Hazard?" 83 Pediatrics 399 (1989)

Goldberg, Vicki, "Death Takes a Holiday, Sort Of," in Why We Watch:
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
(J. Goldstein, ed.) (1998)

Goldstein, Jeffrey, "Why We Watch," in Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment (J. Goldstein, ed.) (1998)

Goldstein, Jeffrey, "Does Playing Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior?"
Paper presented at University of Chicago "Playing By the Rules" Conference,
Oct. 27, 2001 (to be published as "Violence and Video Games," in the Handbook
of Computer Game Studies
(J. Raessens & J. Goldstein, eds.) (forthcoming, 2003)

Gould, Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man (1981)

"Guns, Lies, and Videotape," 354(9178) The Lancet 525 (1999)

Griffiths, Mark, "Violent Video Games and Aggression: A Review of the Literature,"
4 Aggression & Violent Behav. 203 (1999)

Gunter, Barrie, The Effects of Video Games on Children: The Myth Unmasked

Herz, J.C., Joystick Nation (1997)

Huesmann, L. Rowell, et al., "The Stability of Aggression Over Time and Generations,"
20 Devel. Psych. 1120 (1984)

Jenkins, Henry, "Professor Jenkins Goes to Washington," Harper's, July 1999

Jenkins, Henry , "Lessons From Littleton: What Congress Doesn't Want to Hear
About Youth and Media,"
Independent School, Winter 2000, (accessed 9/19/02)

Jones, Gerard, Killing Monsters: Why Children Need Fantasy, Super Heroes, and
Make-Believe Violence

Kellerman, Jonathan, Savage Spawn - Reflections on Violent Children (1999)

Kurdek, Lawrence, "Gender Differences in the Psychological Symptomatology and
Coping Strategies of Young Adolescents," 7 J. Early Adol. 395 (1987)

Lorenz, Konrad, On Aggression (1963)

Males, Mike A., Framing Youth: Ten Myths About the Next Generation (1999)

May, Rollo, Power and Innocence - A Search for the Sources of Violence (1972)

McCauley, Clark, "When Screen Violence is Not Attractive," in Why We Watch:
The Attractions of Violent Entertainment
(J. Goldstein, ed.) (1998)

McGuire, William, "The Myth of Massive Media Impact: Savagings and Salvagings," in
Public Communication and Behavior (G. Comstock, ed.) (1986)

Messner, Steven, "Television Violence and Violent Crime: An Aggregate Analysis,"
33(3) Social Problems 218 (1986)

Moore, David, Statistics - Concepts and Controversies (4th ed.) (1997)

National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Understanding and
Preventing Violence
(A. Reiss, Jr. & J. Roth, eds.) (1993)

National Institute of Mental Health, Television and Behavior - Ten Years of Scientific
Progress and Implications for the Eighties

Niehoff, Debra, The Biology of Violence (1999)

Pearce, Celia, "Beyond Shoot Your Friends: A Call to Arms in the Battle Against
Violence," in Digital Illusion: Entertaining the Future With High Technology
(C. Dodsworth, Jr., ed.) (1998)

Quart, Alissa , "Child's Play," Lingua Franca, Oct. 2001

Rhodes, Richard, "The Media- Violence Myth," Rolling Stone, Nov. 23, 2000

Rowland, Willard, Jr., The Politics of TV Violence (1983)

Rowland, Willard, Jr., "Television Violence Redux: The Continuing Mythology of Effects,"
in Ill Effects: The Media Violence Debate (M. Baker & J. Petley, eds.) (1997)

Savage, Joanne, "The Criminologist's Perspective," in Violence and the Media
(Freedom Forum, 2001)

Saxe, Joel, "Violence in Videogames: What are the Pleasures?" Paper presented
at the International Conference on Violence in the Media, St. John's University,
New York, Oct. 1994 (reprinted in 2(1) CommOddities - A Journal of Communication
and Culture
, July 1995)

Schauer, Frederick, "Causation Theory and the Causes of Sexual Violence,"
4 Am.
Bar Fdtn Rsrch J. 737 (1987)

Sørensen, Birgitte Holm & Carsten Jessen, "It Isn't Real: Children, Computer
Games, Violence and Reality," in Children in the New Media Landscape
(C. Von Feilitzen & U. Carlsson, eds.) (2000)

Sprafkin, Joyce, et al., "Effects of Viewing Aggressive Cartoons on the Behavior
of Learning Disabled Children," 28 J. Child Psych. & Psychiatry 387 (1987)

Sprafkin, Joyce, Testimony in Eclipse Enterprises v. Gulotta (CV-92-3416)
(E.D.N.Y., Mar. 28, 1994)

Surgeon General's Advisory Comm. on Television & Social Behavior,
Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Televised Violence (1972)

Thrasher, Frederic, "The Comics and Delinquency: Cause or Scapegoat,"
23 J. Educ. Sociology 195 (1949)

Tierney, John, "Here Come the Alpha Pups," New York Times Magazine, Aug. 5, 2001

Twomey, John, "The Citizens' Committee and Comic Book Control," 20 Law &
Contemp. Probs
. 621 (1955)

"Violent Crime Fell 9% in '01, Victim Survey Shows," New York Times, Sept. 9, 2002

Wiegman, Oene, et al., Television Viewing Related to Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior (1986)

Wiegman, Oene, et al., "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Television Viewing
on Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors," 31 Brit. J. Social Psych. 147 (1992)

Ellen Wolock, "Is There a Reasonable Approach to Handling Violence in
Video Games?" Children's Software Revue, July/Aug. 2002

Zimring, Franklin, & Gordon Hawkins, Crime is Not the Problem - Lethal Violence
in America (1997)